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CATTLING

CATTLING is a very hard work, so I will not deal with individual cattle breeding on this topic, but I will say some things in general that will enable you to get a picture of what suits you best. I suggest you start with a few heads before considering a larger herd. Depending on the members of the household living in your household, you will decide how many heads and what species you need.

   Livestock is a branch of agriculture that includes the breeding of domestic animals. By raising domestic animals, meat and fat were obtained, which are used in human nutrition.
  Livestock can be divided into intensive and extensive livestock farming. Intensive livestock farming means keeping noble breeds of cattle, application of modern solutions and nutrition based on the latest experiences. On the other hand, extensive animal husbandry means keeping cattle according to the principles that were valid 100 or more years ago.
The second division in animal husbandry is made on the basis of which domestic animal is kept: CATTLE,      SHEEP,      PIGS,       GOATS

   

CATTLE (Cows)

   Cattle can be divided into the following categories according to age and purpose:

   • calf – a young cow up to 6 months old.
   • breeding heifers (up to 1 year) – a female aged between 6 months and 1 year, which has been selected for breeding.
   • breeding heifers (from 1 to 2 years) – same as the previous category, only aged between 1 and 2 years.
   • breeding cows – female heads that have calved at least once.
   • breeding bull – a male throat that is in breeding or a male throat older than 2 years.
   • fattening cattle – male and female fattening heads up to 2 years old.
   • older cattle – fattening heads of both sexes that have been extracted from breeding or  are older than 2 years or male heads older than 3 years that have been castrated and used for work.
   Cattle breeding also implies the production of certain goods that are obtained from the head. These can be:
   • milk production – the most common type, because it is one of the cheapest foods for humans;
   • meat production – beef is one of the highest quality sources of protein in the human diet;
   • making meat products – production of certain products that are very useful for humans;
   • exploitation of cattle skin – making various items for everyday human use.

   CATTLE DISEASES

   Cattle are prone to weakened immunity, which is why today’s species and breeds often suffer from numerous diseases. They can affect the health of the throat, which has an effect on the quality of milk and meat. The most common diseases of cattle are: ketosis, mastitis (inflammation of the udder), milk fever, pneumonia, placental abruption, acid indigestion of the rumen and its bloating.
When it comes to the causes for the appearance of these diseases, it is most often the udder injury, then hormonal disorders, and often the poor conditions of housing the animal are the reason. The greatest economic damage is caused by mastitis, and it is generally important to notice all the symptoms of cattle disease in time when they occur.

   PIGS

   The domestic pig is a genus of animals belonging to the family Suidae. They have a raised and slightly elongated snout, while their eyes are small and their tail is usually curled. Their legs are short, and they have four toes on each, two of which stand out significantly and are used for walking. They are characterized by the fact that they have large amounts of fat, ie fat that is processed and used for various purposes.
   The female pig is called a sow, and usually gives birth to between 6 and 12 cubs called piglets. The male of this animal that is established is called a sow or boar, while those that are not sterilized are called boars.
   Pig meat is most often used in industrial processing, so as such it is widely present in the human diet. Due to the high level of fat contained in it, but also due to the possibility of the presence of numerous parasites, it is often the target of criticism from those who are supporters of a healthy diet. Pork can sometimes contain Trichinella, which causes trichinosis in humans. Despite that, the pig is great because of the fat and fat deposits that it has in abundance. Lard is considered to be very healthy and as such is used worldwide in the human diet.

   PIG DISEASES

   There are several categories and types of swine diseases, so they can be divided into:
Internal diseases: those affecting the respiratory, digestive (ulcers, infections caused by E. coli, edema, gastroenteritis), then diseases of the blood, blood vessels and heart, central nervous system, mammary glands and skin, legs and locomotor organs , bladder and urinary tract, as well as metabolic and behavioral disorders.
It is not uncommon for pigs to be poisoned by food or an object or foreign body that they eat. As a consequence, the stomach usually suffers first, and if it does not react in time, the life of the animal itself is endangered.
Infectious diseases: those caused by bacteria (pneumonia, enterotoxemia of piglets, red wind), then diseases caused by viruses (plague) and fungal diseases.
Parasitic diseases: various diseases caused by protozoa, earthworms, helminths and arthropods (scabies).
   All these diseases are prevented by vaccination.

   SHEEPS

   Sheep farming is a type of animal husbandry that deals with sheep breeding. It is very common in hilly and mountainous areas, where these animals are bred to obtain quality wool. Sheep breeding is the most widespread branch of animal husbandry around the world. Raising sheep is a multi-profitable business, because they produce wool, leather, meat, but also milk.
   The domestic sheep is an animal that belongs to the order of ungulates and is believed to have originated from the domestication of mouflon. The male of this species is called a ram, the female a sheep, and the cub a lamb. These animals are bred by shepherds, who control the herds with the help of shepherd dogs. They are highly valued, because they provide a handful of products useful for humans.
   They are usually about a meter high and about 1.5 m long. Their weight ranges up to 70 kg. Aries have characteristic horns that are spirally twisted, while in females they are not present.

   Sheep feed moderately, mostly grazing grass, or eating various roots and branches found in nature. They love it, because it raises her appetite and positively affects the quality of wool.
   From sheep were obtained:
   • Wool – the most common and most common product of this animal, obtained by a process called shearing or shearing sheep. It is used to make various clothing items.
   • Meat – this product is called mutton (if it is an adult) or lamb (if obtained from a cub) and is often used in human nutrition.
   • Milk and dairy products – a very healthy and rich source of protein and vitamins, and the most popular food is white sheep cheese.

SHEEP DISEASES

   Diseases of sheep can be divided into:
Parasitic – which can be external (scabies, piroplasmosis) and internal (fasciolosis, fluke, cestodes, trichostrongylidosis, etc.)
Infectious – diseases such as lameness and enterotoxemia, but also enzootic abortion, Q-fever, melitococcosis, etc.
Diseases such as mastitis, which are caused by microorganisms that attack a sheep’s udder, can often occur. Females are very sensitive, so they are also susceptible to inflammation of the uterus and lungs. As a prevention, adequate sheep breeding and keeping in tidy conditions is recommended. It is very helpful to carry out regular treatment against flukes and other parasites, three to four times a year.

GOATS

Goat breeding is a branch of animal husbandry that deals with goat breeding, ie for the purpose of obtaining milk, whey, meat, skin and hair. Most often, this activity is related to sheep breeding.

   The countries that deal with it the most are Australia, Switzerland, New Zealand, India and Argentina.

   People are engaged in this branch of animal husbandry for the sake of obtaining goat’s milk, from which very healthy and tasty cheeses, whey and other processed products are made. In addition, meat, skin and goat hair are used. However, their number in the world is far smaller than 50 years ago, primarily due to industrialization.
The goat is a very intelligent and useful animal. Due to their lower milk yield, they were often called “poor cows”. Because they are resourceful, they easily find food on their own, and in return give very high quality and healthy milk. They are ruminants, so they use roughly voluminous food, and while they are outdoors, they eat as many as 90 different types of plants.
   The female of this animal is called a goat, the male is a goat, and the cubs are kids (kids). In terms of characteristics, both female and male specimens are quite similar. In both cases they have a chin and horns, which can stand upright or be bent to the side. Their body is firm and compact, and their legs are strong and of medium length. The head is short, the forehead broad, and the eyes large and lively. Goats have ears that stand upright, are pointed in shape and have horns in the middle of the head.
Their fur is double, and it is usually attached to the body. The color can vary from dark shades, which is characteristic of mountain strains, to pure white, such as domestic goat. These ungulates are bred as a secondary species in European countries, while they are still the primary domestic animals in Asia and Africa.
Products
   When it comes to goat products, the most commonly used of this animal are:
Meat – mainly meat derived from kids or individuals excluded from reproduction is used. A particularly specialized type of goat that is used for obtaining meat is the Boer.
Milk – is a product of goat breeding. It is said that people used to drink goat’s milk long before cow’s milk, which is much healthier. It is used to make cheeses that are in high demand, as well as whey, which has a positive effect on human health.
Leather and hair – used for the production of ropes, clothes, blankets and other items useful for humans. With the advent of synthetic fibers, the use of these goods has been suppressed.

GOAT DISEASES

Goat diseases can be divided into two types:
Infectious type – the most dangerous and most common is brucellosis. It is characterized in the form of abortion in females, and since diseased individuals cannot be treated, they are destroyed. The only solution is vaccination that provides protection for at least four years. Other infectious diseases of goats are smallpox, listeriosis, Q-fever, tuberculosis, smallpox, lameness, etc.
Parasitic type – the most common diseases are large and small lung hairs, as well as flatulence. Females can also get mastitis, ie inflammation of the udder, but its occurrence is rare. Treatment is based on antibiotic therapy, and as a preventive measure, it is recommended to maintain the hygiene of the barn and adequate nutrition.

Also, chack this site about Food Preservation Methods and Guidance

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